Temasek Review 2021
Investor

20-year Returns Outlook

Our Temasek Geometric Expected Return Model, or T-GEM, simulates the range of possible returns for our portfolio over the next 20 years. These simulations do not predict actual outcomes.

(for year ended 31 March)

Economic Scenario-Based Approach

Equity returns are volatile over time, and influenced by macroeconomic or geopolitical events and shocks. Hence, T-GEM uses a scenario-based approach to simulate our 20-year long term expected returns. This approach takes into account our views of long term macroeconomic fundamentals over the next 20 years, adjusted for current market valuations.

Projection Based on Economic Fundamentals

In projecting economic fundamentals, we make more granular year-to-year assumptions for the first five years, and transit to more general assumptions based on longer term fundamentals as we go beyond 10 years. This “pathing” approach incorporates assumptions about changes in economic conditions over time. We do not assume an equilibrium return that remains unchanged over the 20-year period, nor do we assume a reversion to the historical mean.

Economic Scenario Pathing (Illustrative)
Economic Scenario Pathing (Illustrative)

20-year Expected Returns for Different Portfolio Mix

The charts below illustrate the simulated returns for a Global Bond Portfolio, a Global Equity Portfolio and the Temasek Portfolio. The simulations are based on our Central Scenario.

The Global Bond Portfolio has the lowest upside potential, as compared to the Global Equity and Temasek Portfolios. It also has the least volatility, as shown by its narrower year-to-year annual returns distribution curve.

The Temasek Portfolio has the highest upside potential (see blue shaded) at the end of the 20-year period, but also the highest volatility.

(as at 31 March 2021)

Likelihood of Geometric Returns (Compounded Annualised) at the End of 20-year Period, by Portfolio Mix

(as at 31 March 2021)

Likelihood of Year-to-year Annual Returns during 20-year Period, by Portfolio Mix

20-year Expected Returns for Various Temasek Scenarios

We simulate our 20-year expected returns under different scenarios.

Potential Scenarios for 2021 and Beyond
Potential Scenarios Description
Central
(Our most likely scenario)
Our baseline expectations of growth that also includes longer term challenges such as climate change.
Differing Climate Change Pathways
(Less likely scenarios)
Our “High Ambition” scenario assumes greater mitigation efforts to slow the rise in temperatures. The “Low Ambition” or “business as usual” scenario with minimal mitigation efforts would result in a disastrously steep rise in temperatures by 2100.
China Hard Landing
(Less likely scenario)
A disorderly and prolonged slowdown in growth may result from slowness to rebalance the economy and address risks in the financial system and corporate debt-related vulnerabilities.
Severe Escalation in Trade and Tech Tensions
(Less likely scenario)
Significant trade and investment conflicts among major economies will increase frictions and barriers to global trade, access to key inputs and technology.
Secular Stagnation
(Less likely scenario)
Weak growth potential and a lack of policy space will make the global economy more susceptible to prolonged downturns, during which rates and returns are lower, for longer periods.

The T-GEM 20-year returns curves for the Temasek Portfolio are shown below for the Central, Differing Climate Change Pathways, China Hard Landing, Severe Escalation in Trade and Tech Tensions, and Secular Stagnation Scenarios.

Broadly, the Central Scenario offers higher 20-year expected returns for the Temasek Portfolio, compared to those under the other alternate scenarios. The exception is the High Ambition Climate Change Scenario, where there is concerted effort and strong actions to mitigate climate change and carbon emissions, for a more liveable world.

(as at 31 March 2021)

Likelihood of Geometric Returns (Compounded Annualised) at the End of 20-year Period, by Potential Scenario

(as at 31 March 2021)

Likelihood of Year-to-year Annual Returns during 20-year Period, by Potential Scenario

The four charts below show the positive impact of the High Ambition Climate Change Scenario on the 20-year returns in the four key markets of the US, the Eurozone, China and Singapore. These markets make up 74% of Temasek’s underlying portfolio exposure as at 31 March 2021, and will consequently also drive higher 20-year returns for Temasek. However, the associated transition costs may depress returns slightly over the next decade or so, as a medium term trade-off.

(as at 31 March 2021)

Market Index Value at the End of 20-year Period, by Potential Scenario (US)

(as at 31 March 2021)

Market Index Value at the End of 20-year Period, by Potential Scenario (Eurozone)

(as at 31 March 2021)

Market Index Value at the End of 20-year Period, by Potential Scenario (China)

(as at 31 March 2021)

Market Index Value at the End of 20-year Period, by Potential Scenario (Singapore)

A High Ambition Climate Change agenda will not only deliver environmental and social benefits. Our T-GEM model highlights that the High Ambition scenario is compatible with our aim of doing well, doing right and doing good, to deliver better and more sustainable returns over the longer term horizon, even as we benefit people and planet with ambitious carbon abatement actions.

In contrast, the Low Ambition scenario of business as usual will depress longer term returns in all markets, and result in a dystopic world.